Sunday, December 31, 2006

Text To Speech Software

Read Please software will read any text from your Browser, Email, Word processor, Spreadsheet or any program which displays text.
This Website offers two versions Read Please 2003, Read Please Plus 2003. Read Please 2003 is free where as Read Please Plus 2003 is 30 days trial version. We can download both as a single file. Microsoft text to speech engine software also bundled with them in the same file.
Both works in the same manner. Second one has extra features. We have to copy the text to the clipboard by COPY command. Then Paste it into the Read Please window by PASTE command. Then press PLAY button of Read Please Software. That’s all.
Read Please Plus 2003 has extra options like CLIPPLAY,TOP etc. By clicking CLIPPLAY button Read Please Plus will read any text that is copied to the CLIPBOARD. By clicking TOP button Read Play Plus 2003 will read the text from the beginning.

Download Read Please

Monday, December 18, 2006

How can you delete your un used Yahoo ID permanently?

Any one can simply delete their unused Yahoo ID's. Yahoo provides this facility. After you deactivated your account then You no longer have access to your account. But Yahoo will take 90 days to delete any account from their user database in order to discourage users from engaging in fraudulent activity.

What you will lose after terminating your account?
Naturally you will lose your Yahoo ID,Yahoo Mail Address and Profile Names. Your account data and settings across the yahoo network will be removed also. This includes the contents of your HotJobs, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Address Book, Yahoo Small Business, Yahoo GeoCities, Yahoo Briefcase, My Yahoo etc. Any paid services that you own with this yahoo ID will also be terminated by account deletion. You may not be able to recover payments remitted for these services and the data associated with these accounts.

IMP Note: Once you delete your Yahoo account then you will not be able to reactivate it. You have to sign up for a new account only.

To delete your Yahoo Account JUST CLICK Here.

What about deletion of unused Rediffmail Account?
There is only one way to deactivate your Rediffmail Account. Simply Do not use that Account for a continuous period of 90 days. Then that account will be automatically deactivated.

Saturday, December 16, 2006

How can you open programs with Numeric Keypad?

Most of us are not using the Numeric Keypad at all. Only PC Gamers are utilizing the Numeric Keypad while playing games. Numeric Keypad Keys are used as Game Control Keys in only a few games,mostly multiplayer games. Almost all remaining games won't use numeric Keypad Keys.

Any one can use Numeric Keypad for opening the programs on the desktop,programs in the programs list. Suppose MS Word is in the programs list. We can open it with Numeric Keypad like this.

First ON the NUM LOCK. Click on start button. Click on All Programs. Then go to MS Word program(Don't click it,it will open) then right click MS Word program and choose Properties option. Now a dialogbox will present on the screen like this.

In the FIG you will observe None in the Short Cut Key box. Just click the mouse at None then press a key on the Numeric Keypad(Suppose Num 4). Now click APPLY then click O.K.

Now you can open MS Word program from the Numeric Keypad at any time by pressing 4 on the Numeric Keypad. Remember that you have to ON the NUM LOCK before pressing Number 4.

Same procedure is applied for opening Short cut programs on the desktop with Numeric Keypad. You have to right click a Short Cut Program then choose properties option. Then follow the same procedure above.

How can you know your Internet Connection Speed?

You can easily know your Internet connection Speed by any of the following Sites.

1. Just CLICK HERE then a website will open. Then just click Speed Meter tab that is at the top of the page. Then it will display your connection speed like this.

2. Just CLICK HERE then a website will open. In that site you will observe a link How Fast is Your ISP. Just click that link. It will display your connection Speed like this.

Are you facing 'PRESS F1 TO CONTINUE' while you start your computer everytime?

Here is the solution to rectify it.

On some computers you will observe the following message when you ON those computers.

CMOS Checksum Error - Defaults Loaded
Press F1 To Continue, DEL To Enter Setup

The above message comes due to three reasons.
1. Due to faulty CMOS Settings.

2. When a new Hardware Component is installed in system then there may be settings for this new Hardware in CMOS. In this case also we face Press F1 To Continue.

We will also face this message when an existing Hardware component is removed from the computer.

The solution for the above two cases is just set the CMOS Settings to Default. Then save those settings and restart the computer. Your problem will be solved.

Still you are facing the same problem then the last reason is this one.

3. CMOS battery is Weak or Fail.

Just replace the battery with new one. Then you won't get message Press F1 To Continue now.

In Win XP Systems when battery is weak you will face BOOT DISK FAILURE problem also. You have to replace the old battery with new one only.

Wednesday, December 13, 2006

Make Your PC Ready for Windows Vista

Windows Vista will be released on January 30 2007.

Minimum System Requirements:
Processor: 800 MHz 32 bit or 64 bit
System memory: 512 MB
GPU: SVGA (800x600)
HDD: 20 GB
HDD Free Space: 15 GB
Optical Drive: CD ROM Drive

A graphics Processor that is DirectX9 cabable is better for good Windows Vista experience.

System Requirements to get an even better Windows Vista Experience:
Processor: 1 GHz 32 bit or 64 bit
System Memory: 1 GB
3D Graphics card: Minimum 128 MB DirectX9 capable card with Pixel Shader 2.0 support and 32 bits per pixel.
HDD: 40 GB
HDD Free Space: 15 GB
Optical Drive: DVD ROM Drive
Audio Output capability
Internet Access capability


1.Start Menu
The start menu of Windows Vista is faster and more helpful than previous Windows versions. The start menu has a new feature called Instant search which can help you find anything on your PC. The new start menu makes it easy for you to navigate across all of the installed applications on your PC.

Windows Vista contains new security features. Your PC will be protected from Worms,Spyware,Viruses and other unwanted software. Windows Vista's security features prevent Malware from installing,find and remove Malware if it has already been installed.

Automatic Updates and Windows Security Center will keep your PC up to date with the latest security patches, and also alert you when your PC needs to install an update. Windows Vista Firewall protect your PC from Hackers. Windows Defender protect your PC from Spyware and other unwanted software.The Malacious Software Removal Tool periodically scans your PC for Viruses. You can also keep your computer healthy by using Windows OneCare antivirus software.

3.Search Folders
Windows Vista introduces a powerful new tool Search Folders that makes it easy to find and organize your files-wherever they may be on your PC. A Search Folder is simply a search that you save. Opening a Search Folder instantly runs that saved search, displaying up-to-date results immediately.

4.Windows Internet Explorer 7.0
Windows Vista has Internet Explorer 7.0 version. I.E 7.0 has new Security and privacy features. Also it has so many features like Tabbed browsing,inline search,and shrink to fit printing etc. All these features makes everyday tasks easier.

5.System Restore
In Windows Vista, System Restore allows recovery from a greater range of changes than in Windows XP. The file filter system for system restore used in previous versions of Windows is replaced with a new approach.

Windows vista provides a backup experience that is easier to use with more choices for storing your backed up information. You can choose to back up to CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, an external hard disk connected to your PC by USB or IEEE 1394, another hard disk on your PC, or to another PC or server connected to your network.

Windows Vista networking is easier to setup,easier to use,and more secure and reliable. We can connect wirelessly to our company's network,copy files between computers,share an internet connection and printers etc.

7.Speech Recognition in Windows Vista
You can interact with your computer using your voice with Windows Speech recognition feature. This is a new feature in Windows Vista. We can dictate documents and e-mails,use voice commands to start and switch between applications,control the operating system and even fill out forms on the web. The accuracy with which Windows Vista recognizes your speech improves each time you use it. Windows Speech Recognition was built using the latest Microsoft speech technologies.

Windows Vista supports speech recognition in English (United States),English (United Kingdom),German, French,Spanish,Japanese,Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese languages.

Also there are so many new features in Windows Vista O.S. All we make our PC ready for Windows Vista.

Windows Registry

What is Windows Registry?
Registry is a central hierarchical database used to store settings and options for the 32 bit,64 bit versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems. It stores information necessary to configure the system for one or more users, applications and hardware devices. Whenever a user makes changes to a Control Panel settings, or File Associations, System Policies, or installed software, the changes are reflected and stored in the Registry.

The Registry contains information that Windows continually references during operation, such as profiles for each user, the applications installed on the computer and the types of documents that each can create, property sheet settings for folders and application icons, what hardware exists on the system, and the ports that are being used.

The Registry replaces most of the text-based .ini files used in Windows 3.x and MS-DOS configuration files, such as the Autoexec.bat and Config.sys. Although the Registry is common to several Windows operating systems, there are some differences among them. Registry data is stored in binary files.

Under Windows 95 & 98 Registry database is contained in two hidden files called USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT in Windows Directory, for Windows Me there is an additional CLASSES.DAT file, while under Windows NT/2000/XP/Server 2003 the files are contained seperately in the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config directory.

You can not edit the Registry files directly. You can edit the registry by using Registry Editor (Regedit.exe or Regedt32.exe). If you use Registry Editor incorrectly, you can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall your operating system. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

Registry Structure
The Registry structure is similar to the directory structure on your hard disk.

There are five main Hives in Registry. Each Hive contains a specific portion of the information stored in the registry. Each Hive contains Keys. Each Key contains other Keys(subkeys) as well as Values. These Values contain the actual information stored in the Registry.

There are 5 types of values. They are String Value, Binary Value(0 or 1), Dword Value(32 bit unsigned integer,number between 0 and 4,294,967,295), Multi String Value, Expandable String Value.

The Main Hives are:

This Hive contains all of your file association mappings to support the drag and drop feature, OLE information, Windows shortcuts, and core aspects of the Windows user interface. On Windows 2000 and above, HKCR(HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT) is a compilation of HKCU\Software\Classes and HKLM\Software\Classes. If a given value exists in both of the subkeys above, the one in HKCU\Software\Classes is used.

This Hive Contains the preferences of the user who is currently logged on. The user's folders, screen colors, and Control Panel settings are stored here. This information is associated with the user's profile. HKCU is a subkey of HKEY_USERS.

This Hive Contains local computer's hardware,Software information and settings for any device ever installed in the computer. It Contains all configuration information particular to the local computer(for any user).

This Hive Contains preferences for every user that has logged into the computer. Each user is represented by a SID sub-key.

This Hive Contains information about the hardware profile that is used by the local computer at system startup.

The supporting files for all hives except HKEY_CURRENT_USER are in the Systemroot\System32\Config folder on Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 where as the supporting files for HKEY_CURRENT_USER are in the Systemroot\Profiles\Username folder.

We know that there are Five types of Registry Values. Each Value is is stored as one of five data types.

This type stores the Value as Raw binary data. Most hardware component information is stored as binary data and is displayed in Registry Editor in hexadecimal format.

In this type Data is represented by a number that is 4 bytes long (a 32-bit integer). Many parameters for device drivers and services are this type and are displayed in Registry Editor in binary, hexadecimal, or decimal format.

This type is a variable legth data string. This data type includes variables that are resolved when a program or service uses the data.

This type is a multiple string. Values that contain lists or multiple values in a form are generally this type. Entries are separated by spaces, commas, or other marks.

This type is a fixed length test string.

Editing The Registry
You can edit the registry by using Registry Editor (Regedit.exe or Regedt32.exe). If you use Registry Editor incorrectly, you can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall your operating system. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

Click on Start button. Now select Run. Now in the Open box type regedit then Registry Editor will be open.

It is just like Windows Explorer. On the left side you will notice Hives. On the right side you will notice Values of currently selected folder. You can expand any Hive or Branch By clicking on plus sign to the left of Hive or Branch.

Just click any Key like above then it's values are displayed on the right side. You can add new Keys also. Just right click any Key,then select New,then select Key. Type a name to the new Key then press enter. Now a new Key is created. We can rename any Value and almost any Key. We can also delete a Key or Value. We can also Import and export Registry Settings to a text file and we can save the file also.

Windows NT 4 and Windows 2000 were distributed with both the Windows 9x REGEDIT.EXE program and Windows NT 3.x's REGEDT32.EXE program.

Regedit.exe did not support permission editing. The only way to access the full functionality of an NT registry was with Regedt32.exe. Regedit.exe only supports string (REG_SZ), binary (REG_BINARY), and DWORD (REG_DWORD) values. Regedt32.exe supports those, plus expandable string (REG_EXPAND_SZ) and multi-string (REG_MULTI_SZ). Attempting to edit unsupported key types with Regedit.exe on Windows 2000 or Windows NT 4 will result in registry corruption and, possibly, an unbootable system.

Windows XP was the first system to integrate these two programs into one, adopting the old REGEDIT.EXE interface and adding the REGEDT32.EXE functionality. The differences listed above are not applicable on Windows XP and newer systems. On XP systems we can Edit Registry with Regedit or Regedt32.

Registry TIPS

Imp Note:
I will update this article regularly so that you can access a number of Registry Tips from this article.
If you use Registry Editor incorrectly, you can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall your operating system. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

1.How can you make shortcut to Registry Editor?

Right click on a blank area of the Desktop. Now select NEW then select Shortcut. Now you will observe Create Shortcut Wizard.

In the box type regedit.exe then click next. Now enter a title like Registry Editor then click Finish. Now your Registry editor shortcut will be ready on the desktop. Simply double click it then Registry editor window will be open. Now you need not have to select RUN from Start button in order to open Registry Editor Window.

2.Setting your Folders in accessable to others

With the help of registry settings you can set your folders in accessable to others.
First copy all your Important Files in to a Folder. Then right click that folder and select properties. Now tick read only,hidden options then click APPLY and O.K. Now Doubleclick that folder. Now from Tools menu choose Folder options then click View then select Do not Show Hidden Files and Folders and now click APPLY then click O.K.

Now open Registry Editor Program. Then go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\
Now create a DWORD Value NoFolderOptions

Now right click NoFolderOptions select Modify then type 1 in Valuedata box then click O.K.

Now Restart your system. Now you can observe that Folder options disappear from Tools Menu of any folder. So nobody can view your folder.

If you want you can disable this Registry setting also. Go to NoFolderOptions as explained above then right click NoFolderOptions select Modify then type 0 in Valuedata box then click O.K and restart the syatem.

Now Folder options appear in Tools Menu of any folder. Now everybody can view your folder.

Monday, December 11, 2006

Edit PDF files with CAD-KAS PDF Editor 2.4

You can Edit PDF files easily with PDF Editor 2.4. You can correct spelling mistakes,Add or Delete words,Add or Delete pictures and vector graphics,add text in any font. You can change the page size also. You can Zoom the text in a PDF file with this PDF Editor. You can save the changes also.

But this is a demo version only. A water mark text line will appear on each page of your PDF file by this demo version. That is the only disadvantage with this demo version. If you like you can purchase full version.

The program runs under: Windows XP/2000/98/ME/NT 4

Try This software.

How can you Know the IP Address of your computer?

Your computer is connected to internet. We all know Internet is not a single network. Internet is a collection of networks. Also You know that every computer is identified by a unique IP Address to others on the network. Remember that this IP address is not the IP Address given by you manually in TCP/IP properties of your Local Area Connection. On the internet others can identify your machine by this unique IP Address only. You can know the IP Address of your computer by this simple method.

Just CLICK HERE to know your IP Address.

Get a Free Gmail Account within Seconds

Gmail is the free Email service provided by Google. With Gmail Account we will get 2810 MB free Email storage space. There are no Banner Advertisements in Gmail. This is the main attraction of Gmail. Still Gmail is in the Beta stage of development. So you can not get Gmail Account directly from the Gmail site. You will get Gmail account by invitation. After you created your Gmail account you can invite your friends from your account. Each Gmail account owner can send 50 invitations to their friends. You will get Gmail invitation by the following ways.

1.Gmail account creation is very simple. Visit the link given by me. Then the site will display a code. You just enter that code in a box provided by them,then click Get Gmail link below that box. Then Gmail account application will be open for you. Just fill the application and get your Gmail account within seconds.

Just CLICK HERE for free Gmail Account.

2.If for any reason if you wont get your Gmail account from the above link,then simply Email me for free Gmail invitation. My Email address is given in the blog under ABOUT ME section. It is As soon as you get a Gmail invitation from anybody use it up quickly. If you think you can use it later,then it will be declared invalid after sometime. Please check your junk mail folder for Gmail invitation if it is not found in inbox.

I will send you invitation as early as possible from my Gmail account.

Sunday, December 03, 2006

Installation of C,C++

From the C.D copy TURBOC,TURBOC2 folders to the C drive.

For installing C++ open TURBOC folder. Double click install file. Then it installs C++ by creating a folder TC in C drive. Then go to command prompt. In Windows XP type CMD in run box then you will go to command prompt. Then give the command
C:\TC\BIN> COPY C:\TC\BGI\*.BGI as shown in the figure below.

Now press enter. Then C++ will be installed in your computer. For C language no installation is needed. It is already in TURBOC2 folder.

How to Run C++,C languages software?

For C++ go to command prompt then give the command
Then press enter. Then C++ window comes like this. But this window is not fullscreen window.

For C go to command prompt then give the command
Then press enter. Then C window comes like this. But this window is not fullscreen window.

You can get full screen windows of both C++,C by following the procedure below.

Start the computer with a bootable C.D or Bootable Floppy then system will come to the A prompt A:\> then change directory to C drive by typing command C: at A:\> prompt like this.
A:\>C: then press enter. Then system will come to C prompt like this.

For getting C++ window give the following command then press enter.

For getting C window give the following command then press enter.C:\TURBOC2>TC

What are Domain Controllers,Member Servers,Stand Alone Servers?

Domain Controller:
A domain Controller is a computer that is running Windows NT Server 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server or Windows server 2003 operating system. Also Active Directory must be installed in both Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.

Domain Controller stores read-write copy of the domain database. Domain Controllers manage communication between users and domains,including user logon processes,authentication and directory searches. They store directory data and synchronize directory data using multimaster replication,ensuring consistency of information over time. Active Directory supports multimaster replication of directory data between all domain controllers in a domain.

Member server:
A Member Server is a computer that is running Windows NT Server 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 operating system. But Active Directory is not installed in both Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003. A member server belongs to a domain but it is not a domain controller.

They can operate as file servers,application servers,webservers,database servers,firewalls,certificate servers and remote access servers. They does not process network account logons,participate in active directory replication,store domain security policy information.

By installing Active Directory we can promote a member server to a domain controller. Also we can demote a domain controller to a member server by uninstalling Active Directory.

Stand Alone Server:
A Stand Alone Server is a computer that is running Windows NT server 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 operating system but it is not a member of a domain. It is a member of a workgroup. These servers can share resources with other computers on the network.

Note: Articles on Windows NT,Windows 2000 Server,Windows 2003 Server will come soon on my blog under the same NETWORKING section.

What is Active Directory?

A Server in a Workgroup can supply services such as the internet connection sharing feature,the internet connection firewall,file and print services.

A Server in a Domain can be a domain controller,can supply services such as DNS and DHCP,or can serve as a router or remote access server.

To make windows 2000 server or windows server 2003 a domain controller we must install Active directory. Windows NT 4.0 do not support Active Directory. The Active Directory service is compatible with Windows NT Server 4.0. Active Directory supports the Windows NT LAN Manager protocol used by Windows NT. This enables authorized users and computers from a Windows NT domain to log on and access resources in Windows 2000 or Windows server 2003 domains. To clients running Windows 95,Windows 98,Windows NT that are not running Active Directory client software,a Windows 2000 server or Windows Server 2003 domain appears to be a Windows NT Server 4.0 Domain. Client computers running Windows XP professional,Windows 2000 Professional have the client software built in and can access Active Directory resources normally.

Active Directory:
Active Directory stores information about network objects,such as user accounts and shared printers and provides access to that information. With a single network logon,administrators can manage directory data and organization throughout their network and authorized network users can access resources anywhere on the network. Security is integrated with Active Directory through logon authentication and access control to objects in the directory. Policy based administration eases the management of complex networks also.

Active directory provides a central location for network administration and delegation of administrative authority. Active Directory includes one or more domains,each with one or more domain controllers. So it enables you to scale the directory to meet any network requirements. Users can use desktop tools to search Active Directory. So It privides flexible and global searching.

Active Directory provides Systematic synchronization of directory updates. Updates are distributed throughout the network through secure and cost efficient replication between domain controllers. We can connect to any domain controller remotely from any Windows based computer that has administrative tools installed.

Note: Articles on Windows NT,Windows 2000 Server,Windows 2003 Server will come soon on my blog under the same NETWORKING section.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP):
DHCP is a TCP/IP standard designed to reduce the complexity of administering Address configurations by using a Server. The DHCP server centralizes and manages the allocation of TCP/IP configuration by automatically assigning IP Addresses,Subnet Mask and Default gateway to computers that have been configured to use DHCP.

Whenever a DHCP server receives request from a DHCP client then DHCP server selects an IP Address from a pool of addresses defined in database then offers it to the client for a specified period of time. So client receives valid IP Address.

Suppose we manually configuring IP Addresses,Subnet mask and Gateway. Then entering an invalid IP Address or IP Address currently in use can result in network problems. Entering an incorrect Subnet mask can cause communication problems with other networks.

NetBIOS Name:
It is the computer or host name assigned during installation. The Registry stores this name as an entry. We can change this name through the network program in control panel. The name can be 15 characters in length and we can add a 16 character to the name to designate the application that registered the name.

Windows Internet name Service(WINS):
WINS registers NetBIOS computer names and resolve them to IP Addresses. The database of WINS is DYNAMIC. WINS is designed for Microsoft operating systems only.

If the WINS client initiates a NetBIOS command to communicate with another host then the name query request is sent to WINS server. If the WINS server finds a NetBIOS name/IP address mapping for a host in its database then it returns the destination host's IP Address to the WINS client.

Domain Name System(DNS):
DNS is a system for naming computers and network services. These names are organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS is used in TCP/IP networks,such as the internet,to locate computers and services through user friendly names. When a user enters a DNS name in an application then DNS services can resolve the name to an IP Address.

Suppose there is a mail server on a network. It has it's own numeric Address. For most users it is difficult to remember the numeric address of the server. Then DNS system names this computer with a user friendly name like Any one can remember this type of user friendly name very easily. But computers communicate over network by using numeric Addresses. So DNS services can resolve this user friendly name to it's numeric Address.

DNS uses a client server model in which DNS servers(Name servers) contain information about the DNS database and make this information available to clients(Resolvers).

In brief DNS resolves internet names to IP Addresses. DNS database is static and manually updated whenever a new host is added or an existing host is moved to another subnet. DNS is designed for both Microsoft operating systems and Non Microsoft operating systems such as MainFrames running TCP/IP and UNIX based computers.

Note: Articles on Windows NT,Windows 2000 Server,Windows 2003 Server will come soon on my blog under the same NETWORKING section.

FAT/FAT32/NTFS File Systems

Windows NT Server 4.0 supports FAT(FAT 16) and NTFS file systems. It does not support FAT 32 file system. FAT 32 was designed for win 95/98. If you want to install both Win98 and Windows NT Server 4.0 in a computer then use FAT 16 partitions. FAT 16 supports both Win98/Windows NT Server 4.0. For format the hard disk to FAT 16 partitions you need DOS BOOT DISKETTE and disk manager 9.46 softwares.

Windows 2000 Server supports FAT(FAT 16),FAT 32 and NTFS file systems. If you want to install Active directory then you must have NTFS partitions on your server's hard drives.

Windows Server 2003 supports FAT(FAT 16),FAT 32 and NTFS file systems. If you want to install Active directory then you must have NTFS partitions on your server's hard drives.

FAT: FAT system establishes a file allocation table that provides the name of the file and the location of clusters that make up the file on the hard disk. Even if the file is scattered around the disk,the table makes it possible for the FAT to monitor and find all parts of the file.

FAT is the least complicated type of Windows supported file system. FAT has minimal overhead(less than 1 MB). So it is most applicable to drives or partitions under 400 MB. FAT resides at the top of the fixed allocated space on the hard disk. Two copies of Fat are maintained for security purpose. FAT is updated regularly. FAT supports only network shares.

FAT supports read-only,hidden,system and archive file attributes only. FAT uses 8.3 filenaming convention. A filename may be up to eight characters long,then followed by a period (.),then with an extension of up to three characters. All filenames must be created with ASCII character set. They must start with a letter or a number. Names are not case-sensitive.

FAT performance decreases as the size of the volume increases. So FAT file system is not recommended with drives or partitions larger than 400 MB. It is not possible to set security permissions on files in FAT partitions. FAT does not support local security. Under Windows FAT partitions are limited to a maximum size of 4 GB.

FAT 32: It is an extension of the FAT file system. It uses disk space on a disk more efficiently than FAT.

NTFS: NT file system provides the stability and security. NTFS 5 is the newest version of the NT file system. It provides increased security for files and supports more robust file system recovery. NTFS enables setting file and directory control permissions. NTFS supports both local and remote user permissions on both local and shared files or folders.

NTFS uses 255.3 filenaming convention. NTFS file or directory names may be up to 255 characters long,then followed by a period (.),then with an extension of up to three characters. These names are not case-sensitive. They must start with a letter or a number.

NTFS performance does not degrade as the size of the volume increases. NTFS is best used on volumes of 400 MB or more. NTFS has 1-5 MB overhead. So NTFS should not be used on volumes smaller than 400 MB. Since NTFS overhead does not fit on a floppy,we can not format a floppy with NTFS. NTFS supports partition size of 2 terabytes.

Note: Articles on Windows NT,Windows 2000 Server,Windows 2003 Server will come soon on my blog under the same NETWORKING section.

Saturday, December 02, 2006

The PING(Packet Internet Gropher) Utility

The ping utility is used for testing connections. With the help of ping command we can test whether a connection is still active or not. The ping command is available on most operating systems that implement TCP/IP.

The ping command is used to query another system to ensure that a connection is still active. The ping program sends an ICMP message to the remote and waits for a reply. If the destination machine's IP software receives the ICMP request,it issues an echo reply immediately. The sending machine continues to send an echo request until the ping program is terminated. After termination ping displays a set of statistics as shown below.

We can also use PING to isolate network hardware problems and incompatible configurations. You can use the PING like below.

1. Ping the Loopback address to verify that TCP/IP is installed and configured correctly on the local computer.


2. Ping the IP Address of the local computer to verify that it was added to the network correctly.

If a computer is on a network and it's IP Address is then use ping command like this.


3. Ping the IP Address of the Gateway to verify that the default Gateway is functioning and that you can communicate with a local host on the local network.

If the default Gateway is then use the ping command like this.


4. Ping the IP Address of a remote host to verify that you can communicate through a router.
By default PING waits 1000 ms(1 second) for each response to be returned. If it does not receive the response then it will display Request Timed Out message like this.

Note: Articles on Windows NT,Windows 2000 Server,Windows 2003 Server will come soon on my blog under the same NETWORKING section.

How can you clean the LENS of CD,DVD Drives and Writers?

If there are dust particles on the Lens of CD or DVD drives and writers then they won't read Cd's or Dvd's. We can clean the Lens with one or two water drops like this.

First unscrew the Drive from the computer. Take it out from the computer. You will observe 4 screws on one side of the CD Drive. Unscrew those four screws. Then open the iron sheet cover from the drive. Then you will observe like this.

In the above figure you will observe that Door of the CD Drive is locked and front plastic cover is also locked. The screw driver is showing door locking point in the above figure. You can clearly observe it from the figure below.

With the help of screw driver move the locking point to the left. Then door lock will be released. Now you can release the front plastic cover by pressing two small plastic locks on left and right sides of the drive. Now remove the second iron sheet cover also. Then you will observe the CD LENS as shown below.

The CD Lens is in the circled mark(The Door of the CD drive covers the Lens). Now with your finger put one drop of water on the Lens then clean the lens with a clean paper until it dries. Now cleaning Lens is completed. Now arrange the CD drive as usual then Fit it to the computer as usual.

NOTE: After reading this article first observe the cleaning procedure when any experienced person is doing the Lens cleaning. You can easily understand how he is doing the Lens cleaning. After you got confidence then you can also do the same as explained above.

Which 3D card is cheap&best for old AGP 4X Mother Boards to run almost all latest games?

Old PC's have Mother Boards which support AGP 4X 3D cards only. We can use AGP 8X 3D cards also on these boards. But these Old AGP 4X Mother Boards won't support latest 3D cards. If your system has old AGP 4X card then you can not play latest games on this card. Here is the solution to play almost all latest games on your PC.

You can not upgrade your 3D card to latest 3D card as your mother board won't support latest 3D cards. But Your old AGP 4X Mother Board will support AGP 8X 3D cards. The cheap and best card for this type of mother boards is 256 MB DDR GEFORCE FX 5200. This is AGP 8X 3D card.

One more important thing. For almost all latest games to work on this card you have to install atleast 1GB RAM in your system. Also you have to install latest display drivers for all games to work. You can download latest nvidia display drivers from softwares section on the same blog. First check whether your system is working well with 1 GB RAM or not? If your system is O.K with 1 GB RAM then only purchase GEFORCE FX 5200 3D card. Games like FEAR will require atleast 1GB RAM.

Try to purchase the card from local dealer. If it is not available then you can purchase this card from WWW.EBAY.IN site at cheap price. Compare rates of local dealer and EBAY. I think EBAY rates may be cheap.